On Tuesday, for my Geology of the Hudson Valley field course, we started the day with a 2-hour drive to Saratoga Springs, on the edge of the Adirondacks, where we examined a famous outcrop at Lester Park. There, on the side of a country road, is a glacially-polished outcrop of Cambrian limestone loaded with exceptional stromatolite fossils.
During the Cambrian Period, around million years ago, the Hudson Valley was a continental shelf environment some 30 degrees or so south of the equator. From there we worked our way to Thacher State Park , west of Albany. Thacher is famous for its section of early Devonian limestones exposed along the Helderberg Escarpment.
We were able to see things like minerals from the Hudson Highlands Day 1 , dinosaur tracks from the Newark Basin Day 2 , reconstructions of the stromatolite fossils we viewed at Lester Park that day, and a fossil slab of starfish Devonaster and clams from near Saugerties Wednesdays trip , among many other things. The best part about the fossil exhibits is that they're laid out divided by geologic time with plate reconstructions showing where the Hudson Valley was during each of these Periods.
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No pictures, unfortunately, since it was raining most of the day pouring in the afternoon. After the supercontinent of Rodinia rifted apart, this area became a continental shelf with carbonate deposition during the Cambrian and into the Ordovician. We started down by the Hudson River and examing Ordovician sandstones and shales representing turbidites - relatively deep water shales interbedded with graywacke sandstone submarine landslide deposits. We looked at some examples of sole marks and graded bedding in the sandstone layers. The collision of this island arc folded and thrust faulted these shales and sandstones toward what's now the west we also looked at a couple of faults.
In Ulster County, however, we were far enough from the action that these rocks weren't metamorphosed. From the River, we drove west to the base of the Shawangunks at the Trapps - a popular rock climbing area known as the Gunks. There we saw the angular unconformity between the Ordovician shales and the Silurian conglomerate - the Taconic unconformity representing the period of uplift and erosion of the Taconic Mountains.
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Over the Shawanungunk Ridge, we stopped at an overlook to the west and spoke about the Rondout Valley where Early Devonian carbonate rocks overlie the older rocks and then grade upward into the sediments of the Catskills. The Rondout Formation is the most important of the three since two of its members were mined for natural cement in a narrow belt from Rosendale to Kingston there's a book there. Again, no images since it was a torrential downpour by the end of the day and we were soaked to the skin by the time we wrapped things up.
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Sunday, May 20, Day 3 - Regional Metamorphism. On the third day of the course, we began again in the Hudson Highlands, but on the east side of the river near Bear Mountain Bridge.
We did a short hike and bushwack up from the Appalachian Trail to the Philips Mine. The mine hasn't been operational since the early 's and was primarily exploited for copper, iron, and sulfur used to make sulfuric acid. Zodac, P. The Newark Basin, that little bit of pinkish-red in the map above, is mostly in New Jersey but represents a rift basin formed by the breakup of Pangaea during the Triassic Period.
After the rift a little further to the east broke though, eventually forming the Atlantic Ocean, Africa drifted away from North America and the Newark basin stopped spreading. Posted by Steven Schimmrich at AM 2 comments. Friday, May 18, Day 1 - Hudson Highlands. Today was the first day of my Geology of the Hudson Valley field course.
Goddess of protection
After a quick orientation in the classroom, we drove down to the top of Bear Mountain in Harriman State Park. Once there, I lectured for a bit on the outcrop, providing the students with an introduction to geologic time and plate tectonics. They are essentially the same as the rocks up in the Adirondacks and, actually represent the deep basement rocks under all of NY outside of the Highlands and the Adirondacks, they're covered by thousands of feet of younger sedimentary rocks.
They're exposed in the Highlands and Adirondacks because they've been uplifted through the younger cover rocks. We also saw a couple of granitic intrusions. After discussing the Grenville Orogeny we climbed the tower and took in the view - it was clear enough to see the buildings of Manhattan and I could pick out the Empire State building and the new Freedom Tower downtown.
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We also looked at some glacial chattermarks covering many of the exposed granitic gneiss outcrops. The Highlands are also rich in history - especially from the Revolutionary War when the area was strategically important to both the British and the colonists. Overgrown hills of tailings still contain lots of nice pieces of magnetite no collecting allowed from State Parks, however.
Unfortunately, the one downside to the day were the ticks that kept appearing on people I took one off my leg before showering at home that night. I really hate ticks. Tuesday, May 15, Geology of the Hudson Valley. Thursday, May 17 starts my eight-day field course on the Geology of the Hudson Valley.
I will try to blog each evening about what we did that day and see how it goes Monday, May 14, Random stuff The spring semester ended today. It was the last day of finals, everything is graded, and now I switch gears for my summer field course starting Thursday! I suppose the student hoped I was too stupid to notice substantial portions of text, without quotations, directly lifted from an online Encyclopedia of Science.
TurnItIn even provided me with the link to where the material was lifted. That paper was easy to grade. Good God, what more can I do besides hold the sides of their head and yell it into their faces! We added a freshman English corequisite to this course specifically for this reason but it doesn't seem to have helped. While some students did a great job, and wrote papers which were interesting and enjoyable to read, many others submitted papers that barely reached an 8th grade level in terms of grammar, coherence, and quality.
When Ra was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris , the god of the dead. Ra was represented in a variety of forms.
The most usual form was a man with the head of a falcon and a solar disk on top and a coiled serpent around the disk. Ra was also pictured as a full-bodied ram, beetle, phoenix, heron, serpent, bull, cat, or lion, among others. He was most commonly featured with a ram's head in the Underworld. In some literature, Ra is described as an aging king with golden flesh, silver bones, and hair of lapis lazuli.
He was identified with the local sun god Atum. Ra's local cult began to grow from roughly the Second Dynasty , establishing him as a sun deity. By the Fourth Dynasty , pharaohs were seen as Ra's manifestations on earth, referred to as "Sons of Ra". His worship increased massively in the Fifth Dynasty , when Ra became a state deity and pharaohs had specially aligned pyramids , obelisks , and sun temples built in his honor. The rulers of the Fifth Dynasty told their followers that they were sons of Ra himself and the wife of the high priest of Heliopolis.
During the Middle Kingdom , Ra was increasingly affiliated and combined with other chief deities, especially Amun and Osiris. At the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt , the worship of Ra had become more complicated and grander.
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The walls of tombs were dedicated to extremely detailed texts that depicted Ra's journey through the underworld. Ra was said to carry the prayers and blessings of the living with the souls of the dead on the sun boat. The idea that Ra aged with the sun became more popular during the rise of the New Kingdom. Many acts of worship included hymns , prayers, and spells to help Ra and the sun boat overcome Apep. The rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire put an end to the worship of Ra. As with most widely worshiped Egyptian deities, Ra's identity was often combined with other gods, forming an interconnection between deities.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Egyptian deity.
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For other uses, see Ra disambiguation. In one of his many forms, Ra, god of the sun, has the head of a falcon and the sun-disk inside a cobra resting on his head. Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids.